Tuesday, January 21, 2020
The Element: Chlorine Essay -- essays research papers
The Element: Chlorine General Information We researched the chemical element known as chlorine. Chlorine has an atomic number of 17 and an atomic weight of 35.453. It has a valence number of 3. The element has 3 energy levels. Chlorine exists as a greenish-yellow gas at normal temperatures and pressures. Chlorine is second in reactivity only to fluorine among the halogen elements. Chlorine is a nonmetal. It is estimated that 0.045% of the earthÃ¢â¬â¢s crust and 1.9% of sea water are chlorine. Chlorine combines with metals and nonmetals and organic materials to form hundreds of chlorine compounds. Chlorine is about 2.5 times as dense as air and moderately soluble in water, forming a pale yellowish green solution. Chlorine is so reactive that it never occurs free in nature. Chemical Properties Chlorine is in the halogen family, and like all the other halogen elements chlorine has a strong tendency to gain one electron and become a chloride ion. Chlorine readily reacts with metals to form chlorides, most of which are soluble in water. Chlorine also reacts directly with many nonmetals such as sulfur, phosphorus, and other halogens. Chlorine can support combustion; if a candle were to be thrown into a vessel of chlorine, it would continue to burn, releasing dense, black clouds of smoke, The chlorine combines with hydrogen of the paraffin, forming hydrogen chloride, and uncombined carbon is left in the form of soot. Soot is black residue from fuel. Chlorine replaces iodine and bromine from their salts. Dry chlorine is somewhat inert or not able to move, but moist chlorine unites directly with most of the elements. History Chlorine was discovered in 1774 by Karl Scheele. Humphry Davy proved that chlorine was an element. Extensive production began 100 years later. During the 20th Century. The amount of Chlorine used was considered a measure of industrial growth. In, 1975 chlorine productions ranked seventh on the list of largest-volume chemicals produced in the United States. The importance of chlorine has changed as new uses have been added. In 1925 paper and pulp used over one- half . The chlorine made and chemical products only 10%. By the 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s paper and pulp use accounted for only 15-17% and the chemical uses increased to 75-80%. Peoples uses have contributed to the growth of large cities, and new textiles, plastics, paints, and miscellaneous uses have raise... ...h chlorine. At the iron cathode or negatively charged electrode, sodium ions are reduced to sodium metal, which reacts immediately with water to form sodium hydroxide. Another method of preparing chlorine is by the electrolysis of molten salt. This process is used specifically to produce sodium, and the chlorine is a commercial by product. When large quantities of waste hydrochloric and are available. Chlorine may be recovered by oxidation of the acid. This method has the advantage of converting great quantities of waste acid to useful substances. No matter what process is used to prepare chlorine, the gas must be well dried. Dry chlorine is much less corrosive than moist chlorine gas. In the laboratory chlorine may be prepared by heating manganese oxide with hydrochloric acid. Conclusion In conclusion chlorine is a very wonderful element. Chlorine has hundreds of compounds. If we did not have these compounds we would not have clean water, we would have an insect problem, we could not make many important compounds that are used in medicine, and some of the battles in World War I might have been lost if it were not for chlorine. Our world would not be the same if not for chlorine.